A Business Plan of Promoting MOOCs among Chinese High School
Advancing the links between Chinese college and high school education
China still uses the most traditional educational systems. The Chinese Ever since MIT and Havard employed government is now slowly supporting the MOOC(Massive Online Open Courses), it use of MOOC as it gradually become is leading the revolutionary changes of market-oriented and globalized. We believe traditional education systems. MOOC MOOC's innovatives ideas will bring a has been accepted by many prestigious trend to the future forms of education. institutions of higher education. However,
developing countries such as India and Most people believe that the quality of
educational systems are proportional to its Only 23% of people from age 18-22 have price. But nowadays, as more and more graduated from university in 2006. university implement MOOC and its Therefore, a change is needed, and MOOC policies of sharing informations, better comes right in place.
education can be accessed cheaper and
-Because MOOC is online based, it is in fact a new market, indicating huge The world is become more interconnected potentials such as pricing on premium with internet and other forms of courses, advertisements, paying to ask communication tools each day, therefore, professionals online, and etc. If online courses such as MOOC will most implemented, the price for coruses could likely be implemented by more and more be very low to attract a large amount of institutions. It is possible that one day students in China.
many Chinese institude will also use its
ideas. Since MOOC is becoming and seen -Teachers are a waste on human resources as such an important system of education because teachers have to cover the same for the future, we will discuss its use in materials each year for new students. With Chinese universities, high schools, and the implementation of MOOC, it is most colleges, and others values such as its likely that the number of teachers could be market potential, influence, availability, greatly
and feasibility in this paper.
reduced. Therefore, schools' expenditure could be reduced. Students will also have more free time because they constricted area, for example, listening to a lecture in the metro. 1.2 Use of MOOC and its Market can listen to courses and lectures in a less
The cost for premium or high-level
education in China is lavish, and is not -
accessible for people in the lower class.
Preliminary cooperation among Chinese autonomy,
firstly ensure the authority diversity, openness, and Top Universities and Coursera would interactivity allow an instructor to assume and the role of facilitator with learners actively practicability of the course resourses. Also, interacting with other students. “Most the three self-admission alies among significantly, MOOCs build on the Chinese Top Universities is, to some extent, engagement of learners who self-organize the tacity approval of the current mode in their participation according to learning which universities perform mutual goals, prior knowledge and skills, and cooperation.
It has make it easier to build common interests” Therefore, active China’s MOOC system. Although the engagement and interaction are key development of China's Internet is MOOC instructional methods. MOOC's gradually becoming the forefront of the use of the makes its accessibility is much world, China still lacks technological higher than of traditional educations and innovation in its online market.
The result reliable and recognized by most companies of implementation of MOOC is dependent because of fast development of IT.
There on a country's situation and condition, as a are still many unrecognized gaps and country with congenital national conditions, inadequates in the Chinese internet/online the great potential of MOOC in China will education market.
likely create the world's leading MOOC
running system High School-University 1.4
MOOC's competitiveness advantages Management and profitability forecast 1.4.1 Management and The basic management should be done by Universities, businesses, high school, government in a joint and consensus way. MOOC have considerable advantages that Business and co-operations should should are unparalleled compared to traditional be responsible for resources and funds, education.
Connectivism values schools and colleges will take MOOC into
and and the government are great market opportunities to explore, such responsible for the overall coordination as producing online courses, trustee of supervision necessary. Capital courses and the utilization of data in the
and establishment of MOOC platforms. This is requirements include making
developing of the curriculum and courses, also a important reason of our motivation marketing, maintenance, advertisement, for promoting MOOCs among Chinese and funding during the beginning of early high schools.
developments of MOOC.[6,7]
1.4.2 Profitability forecast
Entrepreneurial organization Profits will be gained once courses and study materials are published online. 2.
Partnerships with institutions, digital co-overview
operations, sponsors, and advertisements Purpose: Better education that serves the could also generate income. people
In the earlier stage, profits mainly come Name of the organization: from bonuses of the operation of MOOCs. Development Department of Chinese In the later stage, profits mainly come from MOOCs
the bonuses of ipo(initial public offerings). Goal: The promotion of MOOCs among The maturity stage of a MOOOC platform Chinese high schools and the in China should be a completed industrial
chain: technology, funding, application
and teaching resources in the front end;
companies that admit the learning
experience of MOOC learners and provide
The fact is, China has yet to fulfill the
requirements of this completed industrial
chain. Meanwhile, internet business has
advancement of the links between Chinese high school and colleges education job opportunities for them in the back end. Business strategy: Introduction of foreign experience for domestic development; applies the principle of from top to bottom and from sample to the whole; promotiong of the large-scale educational resources sharing integration of MOOC platforms and efficiently. By introducing MOOCs, diversivication of resources.
courses for high school students could be advantageously shared through the network, embodying the central idea of MOOCs, which is massive and online.
Colleges and high schools for trial
operation ( schools in the early centers of 3.1.2 -The "Long-term Education Reform MOOCs, see 4.3 Assessment of the and Development Plan (2010-2020)" marketing ability and 5.1 Marketing mentioned the role of technology, plan); foreign and domestic pioneer technology-driven reforms, and the enterprises; education departments of importance information technology in governments.
3. Products and Services
3.1 Background of research and development
education. It also mentioned that "IT has a revolutionary impact on the development of education'' and was highly recognized by the educational department and plan to speed up this process as one of 10 major aim of the plan because informatization is an inevitable trend and period for the future development of
3.1.1 - Presently, the promotion of MOOCs Chinese education. has gained relatively low popularity among Chinese senior high schools due to inadequate introduction, attracting only a few numbers of students in mostly elitist high schools of more developed regions. Moreover, current courses aimed at high school students specifically fail to realize
3.1.3 -The current education reforms proposed convergence between university and high school is a breakthrough in China's education reform[9,10]. WeiHe Xie said ,''The current breakthrough in educational reforms proposed is the
convergence between university and high school. One of my basic proposals is to broaden the college and high school trend of convergence with the way of reform. A change to broaden the basis of high school is needed. Including the convergence mechanism to strengthen cooperation in universities and high schools, in order to truly produce innovative and talented students.''.
Promoting classes without division between liberal arts and sciences subjects is also the future direction of education reform, particularly important for reforming Chinese College Entrance cover a wide range of college majors, will play an important role in fostering high school students’ understanding about college majors as well as improving their future professional skills.
Most Chinese teachers stick to traditional teaching methods with a low level of
application of educational technology in classes; students participate in the learning process with a lack of interaction, which thinking and communication abilities.
communications as well as collaboration contribute to the broken links between these two educational institutions. Promoting dialogues and strengthening cooperation are fundamental to advance the links between them.
3.1.5-Recent practices of MOOCs credit systems In Europe,
Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) presents an opportunity to transform MOOCs – free, standalone courses – from academic novelty to meaningful qualifications. The ECTS is a standard for comparing student attainment and performance in higher education institutions across Europe. Under the
articulation mechanism, which is the basic obstructs the development of critical
the relationship between the university and 3.1.4-Inadequate and inefficient establishment of diverse and differentiated between high schools and colleges Examination. Meanwhile, MOOCs, which system, students can transfer credits for study already completed towards an appropriate equivalent degree in any of the 53 countries that have ratified the Lisbon Recognition Convention.
On the other hand, within Mainland China, the development of MOOC platforms has provided insights of forming a brand new MOOC credit system between Chinese colleges.
With the publication of Qinghua University’s MOOCs platform, “Xuetang Online”vice principal of the elitist university, professor Yuan Si concluded that realizing mutual credits recognition would no longer be unreachable.
To summarize, recent practices have revealed the significant potentials of building a strong MOOC credit system for not only Chinese colleges, but also the high schools.
3.2 Product patterns and development plans
Development plan one Abstract:
Advancing links between high school-required courses and college MOOCs by strengthening cooperation between colleges, high schools and MOOC development companies. The advancement mainly serves to provide a more suitable syllabus for high school students and thus improve the efficiency of learning. Development model:
Led by colleges and high schools, college and high schools are the main participants researching the following tasks: a. Adapting the degree of difficulty of college MOOCs to the proper level of understanding of high school students; b. Adapting typical learning methods in colleges, including independent learning ability and critical thinking ability to those of high schools’;
MOOC development companies enlarge investment in technological innovation to further address the following tasks: a. Providing more individualized and interacted learning experience of high
b. Fulfilling high school students’ needs for entertainment while maintaining the quality of courses; Development plan two Abstract:
Promoting high school students’ participation in college for-credit MOOCs and mutual recognition of credits between colleges and betwixt colleges and high schools, thus facilitates the forming of MOOC college-high school credit system. Development model: -Ensures the validity of identity authentication through:
1)Establishing proctored examination centers which organizes MOOCs final examinations at stated times every year ( one time in the first year recommended)
as between colleges and high schools through:
1) Promoting mutual recognition between existing Chinese colleges alliances (the Three Alliances for example) as the first step
2) Recommending the government to build a specified and feasible college-high school credit transfer mechanism nationally
3. Enlarges the number of target audiences by:
1) Increasing budgets in advertisement by colleges and high schools
2) Promoting mutual recognition between regions (the existing Chinese colleges alliances for example)
4. Establishing high school MOOCs learning community by:
2) Improving the technical level of identity In the light of the successful running of the
biggest MOOC learning community authentication
3) Improving the technical level of online remote proctor
2. Promotes the mutual recognition of
presently in China, the guokr learning community it is of vital to endeavor to developing “small platforms” (MOOC learning community
MOOC credits between colleges as well apart from building the “big platforms”
(MOOC platforms). It serves the goal of maximizing the benefits socialization learning.
Basically, colleges, high schools and MOOC development companies cooperate on the creation of high school MOOC learning community. The major task for high schools is to enlarge the participation of high school students and the one for colleges is to provide adequate academic guidance in the community. Besides, MOOC development companies are required to strengthen technological innovation and systematic maintenance in order to provide more individualized and interactive learning experiences for participants.
Online MOOC learning community 1) Creating online clustering community and increasing budgets in perfecting the automated complementary learning tools
2) Creating incentives to encourage
academic conversations between students and providing highly individualized learning experience 3) Strengthening teachers’ academic guidance for students
4) Completing the database of students’ learning experience, improving technology of data analysis to analyze the participant’s habits in learning and monitor the progress more astutely, as well as to give feedback more promptly 5) Perfecting the existing feedback system 6) Perfecting the existing teaching modes Offline MOOC learning community 1) Establish experimental learning base in high schools or colleges with reference to past experiences such as learning club or salons in order to facilitate academic dialogues offline a. Organizes MOOC learning forum for high school students, MOOC teacher seminars and MOOC developer seminars regularly both online and offline
Development plan three Abstract:
While required courses are still dominant teaching experience
in high schools’ syllabus, teachers exploits d. Summarizing the practices of applying MOOCs as a complementary tool to teach MOOCs to high schools in different certain area of knowledge (especially those closely related to certain college courses). This is aimed at developing students’ interest in learning required courses, facilitating understanding of required subjects and providing them insights of college majors.
a. Collaborating with high schools, MOOC development companies provide teachers with informizational skills training to facilitate their adaptation to more automated and internet-based educational tools
b. Recommending the government to construct the teacher advancing system and to support the advancement of teachers’ informizational skills in other forms
c. Enlarging budgets in technological development to improve information processing ability of MOOCs; conducting large-scale in-depth interviews MOOC teachers to create more convenient and individualized
regions and thus writing the guide book about application of MOOCs in high school required courses by MOOC development companies 3.3 Function of the product
This product is designed to facilitate the promotion of MOOCs among Chinese high schools and advance the links between Chinese colleges and high schools. Advancing links between high school-required courses and college MOOCs, promoting high school students’
participation in college for-credit MOOCs and enlarging the application of MOOCs in high school required courses altogether will exert significant influences on advancing the links between Chinese high school and colleges. To be more specific, the functions of this product is shown as follows: a. Basic functions
1) Fulfils high school students’ huge demand for more diverse classes
2) Complements the current educational resources
3) Promotes the development of communicational skills and critical thinking ability of students through feedback.
4) Bolsters communication between different educational institutions and promotes the sharing of educational resources nationwide b. Additional function
c. Fosters understanding of required courses
d. Facilitates high school students’ recognition and planning of college majors
e. Encourages academic communication between high school students’ and between high school students’ and college students
f. Performs as the preliminary studies of constructing college-high school MOOC credit system nationwide g. Promotes the informization and modernization of education
h. Promotes the “localization” of MOOCs
4. Market Analysis Summary 4.1 Brief summary of time period i. The embryonic period: five years ..
ii. The period of rapid growth:
Promotes among other colleges and high schools; estimated: three years.
iii. The period of growing maturity of the mechanism:
Popularized among Chinese educational institutions and seeks for a new level of innovation and promotion.
4.2 Time period
Period one (the embryonic period)
Finishes the construction of MOOCs in top universities and starts the trial operation of college-high school MOOCs credit system.
Estimated: five years
comprehensive analysis of data and prompt Targeted mainly at top colleges; estimated:
The first year:
a. Seeks cooperation with foreign and domestic outstanding universities on educational resources sharing; b. Finishes the preliminary construction of
a. Under government's approval, starts the trial operation of college-high school credit system in experimental schools and establishes student data files under the agreement of school and agencies.
independent MOOCs platform in
conjunction with the government's work; The fourth year: c. Advertises to win audience;
d. Cooperates with high schools who sees its potential;
The second year:
personnel training to pilot schools a. MOOCs are expected to be reachable in where the online courses have taken shape;
b. Starts the trial operation of studying
MOOCs as elective courses in different Period two (the period of rapid growth) classes separately; students’ academic Market objectives: performance in these courses will be
used to evaluate their academic After meeting the requirements and funds proficiency and transform into credits needed by MOOCs, its development is with
The third year:
a. Expands audience and attracts more universities and high schools for cooperation as MOOC gradually become more mature and earn greater reputation at the city level in China.
a. Provides corresponding hardware and The fifth year:
most provinces around China; promotes the integration of MOOC platforms in different areas of the country.
corresponding school-specific expected to enter a period of rapid
expansion where the number of high schools participating in MOOCs increases significantly, as the links between high
schools and colleges are gradually starts necessary redistribution of MOOC advanced. This period is also regards as the educational resources and coordinates the critical three-year development period.
Period three(The period of growing
The sixth year:
With growing competition and cooperation maturity of the mechanism): between MOOCs in different regions,
different radiation range takes shape and region-specific college-high school MOOC i. credit system are expected to be driving to the maturity stage.
The seventh year:
a. The gradual formation of a polycentric pattern of Chinese MOOCs platforms of different regions; different MOOC centers establishes steady partnerships with leagues of colleges and high schools;
b. Sets up supervising instituions and instituions in charge of students’ data files collaborating with the government; The eighth year:
With guidance of the government and
Presently, coursera, edX, and Udacity, forms three leagues of colleges that produce MOOCs. On the other hand,
Realizes the stage of maturility of MOOC platforms and MOOC mechanisms;
Focuses on the perfection and updating of MOOCs in the later development phases;
iii. Enlarges its influence and obtains more diversified educational resources by promoting Chinese MOOC mode to other areas in the world;
4.3 Assessment of the marketing ability
comprehensive analysis of the market trend,
Based on the analysis of the current major MOOC platforms and the Chinese three major college leagues of independent recruitment, four centers are estimated to become future MOOC centers. Beijing, Shanghai, Pearl River Delta Center, and Chengdu are the four candidates of best potential.
With consideration of the current division structure of Chinese IT (Information
1. The introduction of foreign experience for domestic development: In the light of foreign company-college cooperation mode, develops the independent capability of domestic IT companies to attract greater maket shares.
2. Achieve the goal of enlarging influence from sample to the whole and from top to the bottom:
Domestic top universitis take the leading
Technology) industry and different level of role in seeking cooperation with development varied by regions, universities in different regions; participating schools and companies will apply the principle of “From each
Domestic outstanding universities take the
according to his ability, to teach according leading role of seeking cooperation with to his need”: Sets up region-specific high schools with the potential of the trail network platforms, builds practical software facilities, provides storage,information service and staff development training based on local conditions; also the number of competing companies in the market will be decided according to the assessment of factors above.
5 Marketing Strategy 5. 1 Marketing Plan
opertion of having MOOC courses and running MOOC college-high school credit system;
Starts in several outstanding schools (colleges and high schools) and gradually introduces the mature mechanism to regions around; also sets up corresponding centers and forms distinctive radiation range;
3. Promoting the integration of platforms and diversivication of educational resources:
Enlarges the market by integration and perfection of MOOC platforms to attract larger number of IT companies and cooperative schools;
Discloses most college courses to the public in order to promote the
diversivication of educational resources; also perfects the division of labor of different schools in the MOOC platforms based on the distinguishing academic fields or majors of each school, which aims at maximizing the utility of educational resources on MOOC platforms;
5.2 Planning and development plan Provides educational resources (courses and learning materials) by the institutions of higher learning, with technological
support provided by network companiesin oder to build MOOC platforms and online student archives. Archives should have a backup host in the school’s education sector and government’s networks; the use of archives wil follow the agreement between the government, universities and enterprises agreed. (prohibitted from any
The development plan of MOOC development companies are divided in three parts below:
1. In the intial stage, develops Chinese college-high school MOOC platform, followed by uploading online courses of various field and curriculum, and updating information or new study materials. 2 in the meduium stage, sets up online student archives and develops the academic mentoring systemwhich provides specific advice on students’ academic performance. 2.
3. Develops the derivatives of MOOC, such as MOOC based library, MOOC
based interactive learning multimedia
systems and individual creation of courses. 6.2 Management plan overview
6.1 Consititution of the management team:
School authorities(three): Director of courses recording (one) School Directors Operations Explorer Enterprise Square (5):
CEO (Chief executive officer) similar to the general manager, CEO, president, corporate legal representative.
COO (Chief operating officer) Executive General Manager, COO similar CFO (Chief financial officer) chief financial officer, general manager of similar financial
CTO (Chief technology officer), CTO similar Engineer
Collection and distribution of CIO (Chief information officer), chief information officer in charge of corporate information
A.CEO and school directors make final decision on important affairs about the operation of MOOC platforms.
B. Director of courses recording, CTO, and CIO make decisions on regular construction of MOOC platforms. C. Operations Explorer and CIO, CFO, COO decide on the daily operation and development palns of MOOC platforms. D. In the school, the Director of courses recording regularly reports the working schedule to Operations Explorer; Operations Explorer reports the financial conditions and construction schedule to school directors.
E. Internal party follows the normal mode of operation and management.
7. Research of the developing process 7.1. Source of funding and technology in the early stage of startup
Notes that the budgets in this part of the business plan are calculated based on the formula below with detailed explanations.
The COP formula is:
Fixed costs (FC) + variable costs (VC) divided by number of units = production cost per item
In this case, fixed costs refer to the costs that do not change based on the number of products produced, which includes the rent paid for building, employees’ salaries and utility costs.
a. Source of funding:
1) Government: Provides certain percentage of infrastructure building subsidies
2) MOOC development companies: Take charge of costs of systematic maintenance and courses production; colleges and companies take corresponding responsibility on the basis of mutual commercial agreement b. Source of technology: In the initial stage, foreign MOOC developers are the main provider of MOOC technology and Chinese underwriting companies such as Netease focuses on its promotion. With greater
phases, Chinese colleges and MOOC development companies will be capable of developing MOOC platforms independently
7.2. Utilization of funding, improvement of technologies and their timetable in the early stage of startup a. Improvement of technology
1) Infrastructure building, which primarily focuses on holding online courses;
Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
2) Hardware storage manager needed for building online database of students’ learning experience;
Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
3) Long-term research budgets for academic mentoring system;
Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
4) Research and development expenditures for derivative programs of MOOCs
Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
support financially and strategically in later b. Marketing
1) Development expenditure for cooperation with foreign MOOC platforms and participating colleges; Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
2) Trial operation of promoting MOOC to local high schools (adjacent to the headquarters of the company); Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
3) Enlarging influence by advertising through mass media;
Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
4) Keeping necessary level of cash liquidity by managing flows of capitals,
Estimated Cost of Production Budget:
8. Financial analysis
Note the expected income refers to the net income or net profits.
8.1. Budgets of programs in the early stage (see 7.2. Utilization of funding, improvement of technologies and their timetable in the early stage of startup) 8.2 Estimated income a. Fees of courses;
Expected income: b. Issuing of verification; Expected income:
a. Charges of derivatives of MOOCs; Expected income:
b. Franchise fees for technological sharing; Expected income:
8.3 Distribution and utilization of expected income
a. Construction of MOOC platform and production of courses, Estimated:
b. Development and perfection of other functions of the platform, Estimated:
c. Marketing programs, Estimated:
8.4 Improvement plan of the financial management system
a. Forming an operational college-company financial model with reference to specific commercial agreement; b. Utilizing and perfecting the existing
online payment system; c. Opening discussions with the government on specific financial certification process;
9.Opportunity and Risk
9.1 Feasibility evaluation (advantages and disadvantages)
1. Goes with the tide of global development of MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses)
2. Conforms to the current structural reform of Chinese education, noteworthily the reforms of Chinese College Entrance Exam
3. Supports the integration of regional educational resources, fosters academic exchange and furthers educational equality within the country by promoting the educational resource sharing 4. Strengthens the links between
Chinese senior high schools and colleges by reforming traditionally disparate learning methods between these two institutions, advancing senior high school’s sense of recognition of college majors and their ability to undertake college courses
5. Reforms traditional teaching ideals and patterns of teachers, thus promotes educational innovation and modernization through advancing teachers’ informatization skills
6. Market potentials as analyzed in the earlier parts. (See for reference)
1. Regional educational development discrepancies and different levels of promotion of MOOCs among senior high school students may exacerbate current educational inequality between regions. And
relatively low-income individuals may lack the capability to afford computers or other necessary equipments to access to MOOC platforms, meanwhile, schools in impoverished areas may be exposed to instable network connection due to financial dilemmas. To tackle these problems, it requires the government to make feasible, region-specific or community-specific arrangement of resources input and planned performance in the process of formulating plans for the informatization of education.
2. Putting the Chinese senior high school-college MOOC credit system into practice may encounter difficulties including realizing absolute equality, as technological barriers remain to eliminate all forms of plagiarism. 3. Over internationalization of education may on the other hand stifle the continuation and
development of Chinese traditional culture
4. Obstruction in the promotion may include the following aspects:
a. Uneven qualities of different MOOCs
b. Possible repetitive use of educational resources in MOOC platforms
c. High cost of traditional agents of network
d. Technological barriers
e. Inadequate social awareness and accepetance
5. Personalized online learning experience requires innovation in relevant technologies
6. Pure online learning may lead to inadequate moral education for senior high schools adolescents and impair their social functioning with lack of face-to-face communication.
With thorough consideration about the
opportunity and risks of this business, we
draw the final conclusion that by actively its potential losses. As analyzed in the earlier parts of this business plan, this business will introduce a new level of quality in Chinese education, particularly in advancing the links between senior high schools and colleges. And it is estimated to become a world-known brand over the promoting MOOCs in Chinese senior high next ten years.
schools, its estimated benefits far outweigh
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Email chat with co-school director of Shanghai Tsinghua University.